Gemma Rius & João Gaspar
CNM CSIC, Barcelona, Spain & INL, Braga, Portugal
Welcome to the very first technical session of the MNE 2017, its short courses! We gathered a sound list of renowned lecturers from both industry and academia. They will be giving detailed tutorials on micro- and nanoengineering topics of interest for beginners or experienced engineers and scientists alike. Based in the foundations of MNE, special emphasis has been put in lithography matters, covering comprehensively methods spanning optical, e-beam and nanoimprint lithography. But typically lithography alone is not enough. In order to make functional, practical and useful surfaces, devices and systems, lithography patterns are transferred by adding or subtracting materials on the substrate materials. As an example of the trends in planar fabrication, plasma processes must be revisited in order to keep up with lithography achievements, i.e. to ensure that sub-10 nm scale features can be accurately transferred. At this scale physics also get even more interesting; so range of applications broadens up as well. And as a consequence, additional processing and integration challenges appear. Economic aspects and consumer new demands also will be addressed, such as exemplified by inkjet printing technology. Adoption of new techniques must cope with large throughput and have to be cost effective when scaled up, while providing outstanding performance for novel schemes, as required in flexible electronics for wearable devices. Therefore, e.g. you will learn on using inks based on selected functional nanomaterials for inkjet printing and their advantages in terms of performance. Final presentation dedicated to ways for characterization and calibration of micro- and nanosensors will teach you on using the minimum effort for optimal efficiency! You can choose on joining one, two, three or more lectures. But we certainly hope you can learn a lot and enjoy them all!
Gemma and João
Dr. Gemma Rius is a Postdoctoral Fellow at the NEMS and Nanofabrication Group of the Institute of Microelectronics of Barcelona, IMB-CNM-CSIC (Spain). She has her own research line which includes her projects GraMOE (Nanopatterned graphene for magnetic, optical and electronic devices) and SPS-NATO project RAWINTS (Rapid skin wound healing by integrated tissue engineering and sensing). She is author of 60 publications including several review articles and book chapters. Currently editing a book on epitaxial graphene on SiC, she has several patents in process. Her works have been presented > 15 times as invited talks and she has contributed to ~ 12 international and national funded projects. Gemma recently became technical advisor for GrapheneNanotech (GPNT), and involved in the European Graphene Flagship Initiative in collaboration with Biomedical Applications Group of the IMB. She has been research supervisor for undergraduate and graduate students of UAB, and regionally, as well as visiting students from Japan and China, and teaches Advanced Nanofabrication for the Master of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology of the UAB.
João Gaspar is the Program Co-Chair of MNE 2017 and Head of the Department on Micro and Nanofabrication of INL – International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory. His research activities include the development of micro and nanofabrication processes and advanced silicon machining, general process integration and packaging, high-throughput wafer-scale testing and reliability of MEMS materials and devices, resonance and optical applications, electret- and piezoelectric-based 2-D resonant microenergy scavengers, sub-100-nm transducers and sensors, micro- and nanofluidics, microneedles and capillary arrays for intracellular recording applications and related post-CMOS processing. Author of 80 scientific papers and more than 100 proceedings, his work has been presented at about 130 conferences. In addition to his activities with industrial, EC and national partners, João is also Auxiliar Professor at Técnico from the Technical University of Lisbon.
José Ignacio Martín
Univ. Oviedo, Spain
In this talk, we will review the variety of lithography techniques that allow the patterning of ordered structures at the nanoscale. First, the main characteristics of optical lithography will be described, indicating its different configurations, photoresist types, illuminating sources, the tailoring in the masks, or several etching processes. The focus on techniques using photons will be put on x-ray lithography and laser interference lithography. Then, some of the methods based in mechanical processes will be presented, including focus ion beam lithography and soft lithography. Finally, different possibilities of using the tip of a scanning probe microscope for patterning will be discussed and relevant examples of bottom-up methods will be presented.
- 1. Optical lithography
- 1.1 Fundaments
- 1.2 Contact, proximity and projection configurations
- 1.3 Irradiation sources
- 1.4 Photoresists and developers
- 1.5 Masks
- 1.6 Etching processes
- 2. Other lithography techniques with photons
- 2.1 X-ray lithography
- 2.2 Laser Interference Lithography
- 3. Nanolithography by mechanical methods
- 3.1 Focus Ion Beam Lithography
- 3.3 Using stamps. Example: Soft Lithography
- 4. Nanolithography using the tip of a scanning probe microscope
- 4.1 Chemical Vapor Deposition combined with STM
- 4.2 Dip-Pen and Local oxidation
- 4.3 Direct writing
- 5. Bottom – up methods
- 5.1 Block copolymers
- 5.2 Polymer nanospheres
- 5.3 Porous alumina
Dr. José I. Martín is Professor Titular at the Physics Department of University of Oviedo (Spain) and a member of the Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology Research Center (CINN). He got his PhD at the Complutense University of Madrid and, later, he was a postdoctoral researcher at the University of California – San Diego. He is the co-author of more than one hundred of scientific articles, most of them related with studies in thin films and nanostructures patterned by electron beam lithography on the fields of Magnetism and Superconductivity.
CEA-LETI, Grenoble, France
This lecture will be dedicated to Electron and Nanoimprint Lithography, both patterning solutions that have been identified as means to achieve higher pattern feature resolution, needed for the advancing miniaturization or versatile micro and nano patterns for new optical, bio or mechanical applications. We will discuss the main concepts of these two “low cost” patterning approaches compared to optical or EUV solutions. Opportunities as well as associated challenges will be reviewed.
Electron Beam Lithography
- Principle of Electron Beam Lithography
- Challenges Resolution Limits
- Ebeam techniques: Gaussian Beam, Shaped Beam, Character, Cell, Block Exposure, Multi-Beams, Multi-Columns, and Multi-Emitters, Electron-beam Projection Lithography (EPL).
- Process considerations
- Principles of Imprint Lithography: Hot embossing and UV imprint technologies
- Fabrication of Imprint Stamps (hard and soft)
- Adhesive Properties of material: Issues and solutions
- Process Issues: Large area, high resolution, defects
- Associated metrology
Stefan LANDIS, Senior Scientist, received his Master’s Degree in Engineering in Physics and Solid State Physics, from the INPG Grenoble Engineering School and his Master of Science (MSc) in Quantum & Statistical Physics from Grenoble University. After a PhD thesis in patterned magnetic media for ultra-high density recording, he joined in 2001 the Lithography Laboratory of CEA-LETI to develop high resolution Ebeam lithography processes for CMOS devices. Then he has been in charge of the NanoImprint lithography activity for 14 years. He is now leading the Multiple Ebeam Exposure Project at LETI and work on the business development for both Ebeam and Imprint Technology. Author or co-author of more than 70 papers and more than 30 patents, Stefan Landis has edited two books Nanolithography and Lithography (ISTE-Wiley, 2011).
Plasma-Therm LLC, St. Petersburg, Florida, USA
This lecture will focus on the fundamentals of plasma etching. It will include an introduction to plasma and an overview of the plasma reactors used for dry etching and their application to semiconductor and materials processing. The talk will review four basic mechanisms for dry etching with examples using metals, dielectrics, compound semiconductors and silicon. The level of the material is aimed at graduate students beginning processing projects in the cleanroom with the goal of removing some of the mystery of dry etching.
- Basic plasma (what is it, how is it generated and controlled)
- Reactive ion etching system overview (vacuum system, components, power supplies, controls)
- Differences between RIE and ICP (low and high density plasmas)
- Fundamental mechanisms of dry etching
- Balancing physical and chemical components
- Reaction product volatility
- Using passivation chemistry
- Mechanism examples using metals, dielectrics, compound semiconductors, silicon
Dr. Lishan received his undergraduate degree in Chemistry from UC Santa Cruz and Ph.D. from UC Santa Barbara in Solid State Electrical Engineering. He has worked and published on a wide range of material, semiconductor, and chemistry R&D topics in the areas of lithography, photochemistry, x-ray mask fabrication, PVD, and plasma processing. During 18 years at Plasma-Therm, he has had business unit management and worldwide technical marketing responsibilities and managed the development of the recently released plasma dicing product for advanced packaging. Currently in roles as Principal Scientist and Director in Technical Marketing, he organizes and presents plasma processing workshops at leading institutions throughout the world. His focus is on the application of plasma processing for R&D, MEMS, photonics, data storage, power, and compound semiconductor applications. He holds two patents and has over 60 publications and conference presentations.
Alexei L. Bogdanov
Non-volatile Memory Research, Western Digital Corporation, San Jose, CA, USA
In this lecture, we discuss modern lithographic techniques used for generation of dense patterns with critical dimensions in sub-10 nm range. Photolithography, EUV, electron beam lithography, and nanoimprint are ranked with respect to the resolution, cost, throughput, and technology affordability. Multi-patterning and self-aligned pitch splitting methods of further resolution enhancement are explained. Methods of pattern transfer such as reactive ion etching and ion beam etching are covered in a more concise manner. Similarly, brief consideration is given to the methods of pattern inspection – SEM, AFM, and TEM. Finally, as an example, a complete process of sub-10 nm patterning for bit patterned media fabrication is presented.
- Modern lithographic methods in IC manufacturing
- Resolution enhancement methods: MP, SADP, BCP-DSA
- Pattern transfer: RIE, IBE, Lift-off
- Inspection and CD measurement: SEM, AFM, TEM
- Real life example: Bit Patterned Media fabrication
Dr. Bogdanov graduated from the Department of Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University with M.S. in integrated optics and electronics. After the graduation, he joined Prokhorov Institute of General Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR as a junior member of research staff, and received a Ph.D. in physics and mathematics from the same institute. Since the beginning of his career as a graduate student, Dr. Bogdanov’s main interest has been and remains in physics and technology of micro- and nanolithography. During his 35 years’ career, Dr. Bogdanov has worked as researcher and research manager at several organisations including: Chalmers University of Technology, Lund University, OBDUCAT AB, National Research Council of Canada, Hitachi Global Storage Technologies, and Western Digital Corporation. In his current position, Dr. Bogdanov is responsible for strategic development of advanced lithography methods for fabrication of non-volatile memory devices within the NVM Research organization at WDC.
Eloi Ramon & Senentxu Lanceros
ICAS CNM, Barcelona, Spain & Univ. Minho, Braga, Portugal
While silicon based technologies are evolving towards advanced nanometric nodes, the emerging Thin Organic and Large Area Electronics (a.k.a. printed electronics, PE) based on flexible substrates and functional inks are starting again the history of microelectronics at technology and device levels trying to grow up to applications looking at the silicon path but far away from its costs and performances.
In the last years, printing technologies have emerged as one of the most promising alternative manufacturing technologies for electronic devices due to their lithography- and vacuum-free processing. Related to this, organic and inorganic solution-processed materials have been advancing rapidly improving the performance, reproducibility and stability of printed devices. The latest technological developments mean electronics are set to revolutionize applications across a number of different industries. The advantages of printing are countless. The reduction of costs and application to new substrates are just two benefits that have powered a whole new platform for electronic applications.
Despite these advantages, performance and size of PE devices are far away from Si devices. Nevertheless, many new applications have been enabled by those new technologies where the rigid silicon/PCB electronics does not have sense. From wearables to packaging and cosmetics to cars, printed electronics have a potential application in a huge array of different products.
Among the printing technologies, inkjet printing turned out to be an attractive approach due to its additive, multi length-scale, mask-less and contact-less processing. This creates a new paradigm in digital fabrication through the construction of electronic devices and circuits in an additive drop-by-drop manner.
- Materials for Ink Jet Printing.
- Soluble Functional Materials
- Printed Devices and their Electrical Performance
- Passive layers, transistors, biosensors, photovoltaics, OLEDs and batteries
- Ink Jet based Technologies and Challenges
- Ink Jet Industry: circuits markets and growth opportunities.
Dr. Eloi RAMON. Graduated in Telecom Engineering from the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC), holds a Master in Micro- and Nanoelectronics Engineering and a PhD on inkjet printed devices and circuits from the Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB). Since 1999, he is an Assistant professor at the Electronic Dpt (UAB) where he is teaching Telecom and CS BsC and MA and working at IMB-CNM as Printed Microelectronics Project Manager. His current research interests are inkjet printing technology, printed microelectronic devices and systems and electrical characterization.
Dr. Senentxu Lanceros-Mendez graduated in physics at the University of the Basque Country, Leioa, Spain. He obtained his Ph.D. degree at the Institute of Physics of the Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg, Germany. He is Associate Professor at the Physics Department of the University of Minho, Portugal (on leave) and from 2012 to 2014 he was also Associate Researcher at the INL – International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory. Since 2016 he is Ikerbasque Professor at the BCMaterials, Basque Center for Materials, Applications and Nanostructures, Derio, Spain. His work is focused in the area of smart and functional materials for sensors and actuators, energy and biomedical applications, with large focus on the application of printing technologies for the development of functional devices.
Dept. Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), Univ. Freiburg, Germany
A very common observation is that sensor systems designed to determine a set of given measurands often show parasitic sensitivities to other influences, so-called disturbances. Temperature or ambient humidity are well-known examples of disturbances. Of course, calibration of such systems aims for the extraction of disturbance-compensated measurand values from them, which is often achieved by exposing the systems to a sufficient number of load conditions involving well-controlled values not only of the measurands, but also of the disturbances. I will show how, more efficiently, this goal is reached by performing a minimalistic approach where only the measurands of interest need to be applied in a controlled, monitored manner, while disturbances can be applied without being monitored. The method, termed half-blind calibration, works well with linear and moderately nonlinear multisensor systems. It will be illustrated by multisensors composed of magnetic, thermal, and mechanical microtransducers. I will finish the tutorial by considering the extension of the method to the broader class of systems including optical and chemical sensing devices as well.
Oliver Paul received the Diploma degree in physics and the D.Sc. degree from ETH Zurich, Switzerland, in 1986 and 1990, respectively. After post-doctoral work at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, he joined the Physical Electronics Laboratory, ETH Zurich, in 1992, as a Lecturer and Group Leader. Since 1998, he has been a Full Professor with the University of Freiburg, Germany, where he is currently the Head of the Laboratory for Microsystem Materials, Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), Faculty of Engineering. From 2006 to 2008, he served as the Director of IMTEK. He is a Co-Founder of Sensirion AG and Atlas Neuroengineering. He is also a founding Director of the German cluster of excellence BrainLinks-BrainTools at the University of Freiburg. Since 2016, he has been serving as the Dean of the Faculty of Engineering. He has co-authored over 400 technical publications, patents, and books. The research of his group focuses on MEMS materials and fabrication technologies, physical microtransducers, and microstructures for industrial and life science applications. He has been a member of editorial boards of the Sensors and Actuators A: Physical and the Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, and a member of the Editorial Advisory Board of the IEEJ Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Engineering. He has co-chaired the IEEE MEMS 2004 Conference.
Gemma Rius & João Gaspar
INL, Braga, Portugal, and CNM CSIC, Barcelona, Spain
Before moving to the welcome reception of MNE 2107, conclusion remarks followed by a brief description of micro- and nanoengineering related activities realized at both INL and CNM will be given. Some guidelines will also be presented regarding laboratory visits and demos at INL. These include cleanroom facilities and ink jet printing lab, as well as characterization services involving advanced electron microscopy, imaging and spectroscopy, such as nanophotonics or measurement of MEMS/NEMS by light.